Unit - Chemistry of Fibres, Textiles and Garments
Prof Robert Lancashire
8 Lectures Semester 1, 2016/2017
Wikipedia links to information and Classification on Fibres - the basic structural element of textile products.
Classification of Fibres
Hemp), Bamboo, Coir, Cotton, Flax (Linen), Hemp, Jute, Kapok,
The various natural fibres are classified based on the origin and include:
Vegetable Fibres (cellulose-based)
Vegetable fibres are generally forms of cellulose and commercially,
cotton and linen are the most important among them.
- fibre collected from seed or seed coatings (raw cotton, java cotton)
- Bast or phloem fiber collected from the "inner" skin (flax, ramie, hemp, jute)
- tendon fibre from stem or leaves (manila hemp, sisal hemp, etc.)
- fibre occurring around the trunk (hemp palm)
- fibre collected from the fruit/nut shells (coconut fibre - Coir)
Cellulose is the most common organic compound on Earth. About 33%
of all plant matter is cellulose (the cellulose content of cotton
is 90% and that of wood is 40-50%).
Leather made from animal hides (skin)
- Silk - composed of amino acids linked by amide bonds
- Wool - protein like material containing polypeptide chains
is a natural mineral fibre.
Chemical treatment and modification of fibres.
Dyeing of fabrics.
Other Textile Treatments
fire retardant fabrics
Much of the information in these course notes has been sourced from
Wikipedia under the Creative Commons License. Students taking this course
will be expected to contribute to Wikipedia as a part of their course
proceed to Textiles Module
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