Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy

Interpretation of Proton Spectra.

The following sensitive map can be used to aid in the interpretation of 1H NMR spectra.
Nine regions are identified.

NMR sensitive map

Alternatively, the 9 regions may be selected using the links below:

Assignment Charts

Type of proton. Chemical shift (d ppm)
Alkyl, RCH3 0.8-1.0
Alkyl, RCH2CH3 1.2-1.4
Alkyl, R3CH 1.4-1.7
Allylic, R2C=CRCH3 1.6-1.9
Benzylic, ArCH3 2.2-2.5
Alkyl chloride, RCH2Cl 3.6-3.8
Alkyl bromide, RCH2Br 3.4-3.6
Alkyl iodide , RCH2I 3.1-3.3
Ether, ROCH2R 3.3-3.9
Alcohol, HOCH2R 3.3-4.0
Ketone, RCOCH3 2.1-2.6
Aldehyde, RCOH 9.5-9.6
Vinylic, R2C=CH2 4.6-5.0
Vinylic, R2C=CRH 5.2-5.7
Aromatic, ArH 6.0-9.5
Acetylenic, RC=CH 2.5-3.1
Alcohol hydroxyl, ROH 0.5-6.0a
Carboxylic, RCOOH 10-13a
Phenolic, ArOH 4.5-7.7a
Amino, R-NH2 1.0-5.0a
Table showing proton chemical shifts.
a The chemical shifts of these protons vary in different solvents and with temperature and concentration

Table of carbon-13 chemical shifts.

Type of carbon atom Chemical shift (d ppm)
Alkyl, RCH3 0-40
Alkyl, RCH2R 10-50
Alkyl, RCHR2 15-50
Alkyl halide or amine , (CH3)3C-X (X = Cl, Br, NR2) 10-65
Alcohol or ether, R3COR 50-90
Alkyne, -C= 60-90
Alkene, R2C= 100-170
Benzylic carbon 100-170
Nitriles, -C=N 120-130
Amides, -CNR2 150-180
Carboxylic acids, esters, -COOH 160-185
Aldehydes, ketones, -C=O 182-215

While construction continues......

Alternative sites exist that have an introduction to NMR theory.
Return to Index of sample NMR files.

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Copyright © 2003 by Robert John Lancashire, all rights reserved.

Created and maintained by Prof. Robert J. Lancashire,
The Department of Chemistry, University of the West Indies,
Mona Campus, Kingston 7, Jamaica.
Created December 1994. Links checked and/or last modified 6th January 2003.